How does obesity impact motor development?

How does obesity affect physical development?

Evidence from many studies indicates that childhood obesity contributes to the early development of a number of conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, sleep-disordered breathing, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and polycystic ovarian syndrome.

How does obesity affect a child’s physical development?

Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age.

How does obesity affect growth and development?

Frequently overweight and obese children are taller for their age and sex and tend to mature earlier than lean children. The increased leptin and sex hormone levels seen in obese children with excessive adiposity may be implicated in accelerated pubertal growth and accelerated epiphyseal growth plate maturation.

How does obesity affect movement?

Overweight and obesity has been suggested to lead to alterations in the musculoskeletal system that place overweight individuals at higher risk of musculoskeletal pain [6]. This increased musculoskeletal pain then results in restricted range of movement.

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How does obesity affect cognitive development?

Indirect evidence has shown an association between western high fat diet and impaired cognitive functions [12]. Based on BMI data, individuals who are overweight or obese fall in the lowest quartile of global cognition, verbal fluency, delayed recall, immediate logical memory, and intelligence [13].

How does obesity affect social development?

Studies indicate that school-aged children with obesity experience a 63% higher chance of being bullied. When children and youth are bullied or victimized because of their weight by peers, family and friends, it can trigger feelings of shame and lead to depression, low self-esteem, poor body image and even suicide.

What negative effects can obesity have on a child’s development?

Overweight or obese children:

  • are more likely to be teased and bullied.
  • are more likely to bully others.
  • may have poor self-esteem and may feel socially isolated.
  • may be at increased risk for depression.
  • may have poorer social skills.
  • may have high stress and anxiety.

How does obesity cause tall stature?

Obese children usually present with greater height than their normal weight peers although they do not tend to attain taller height as adults1618. The increased linear growth is associated with accelerated skeletal maturation.

How does obesity affect muscles?

The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength.

How does obesity affect mobility?

Obesity may also affect adaptation and mobility by limiting an individual’s ability to motor plan, the ability to pre-plan a movement before the movement is executed. Poor motor leads to poor per- formance on tasks.

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How does obesity affect vital signs?

Large studies show that the risk for heart disease increases with obesity (5). People with severe obesity are at a higher risk having a heart attack. Obesity increases your risk of heart failure. Severe obesity is associated with irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias, or a heart beat that is not normal).

How does obesity affect homeostasis?

In overweight and obesity, feedback loops in different homeostatic systems that operate to maintain equilibrium become imbalanced. In one of these systems, the levels of body dissatisfaction, negative affect and high-energy, low-nutrient consumption run out of control.